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ახალი ნომრის
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გადმოწერეთ

 

Scientific and social journal
“SAMI SAUNJE” (three treasures)  №1(15), 2015
(in georgian)

SUMMARY

  • Zurab Tsutskiridze, Beneficence and ingratitude
  • Gvantsa Koplatadze, Settlement of armenians in samtskhe-javakheti in the 30-ies of the 19th century
  • Grigol Rukhadze, Happy slaves of globalization
  • Eldar Bubulashvili, Konstantine gvaramadze - defender of antiquities (one unknown document)
  • Mamuka Tsukhishvili, Gayoz rector
  • Boris Darchia, Science and integrity
  • Giorgi Gogolashvili, David kldiashvili and the georgian language
  • Grani Kavtaria, Seven wise men
  • Niko Berdzenishvili, Era of tatar rule
  • Valerian macharadze, Russian-turkish war of 1768-1774 and georgia
  •  

    ZURAB TSUTSKIRIDZE
    BENEFICENCE AND INGRATITUDE

    A person who cannot see the fact that by accession to Russia Georgia was able to survive both spiritually and physically must not know the history or be very ignorant and ungrateful. Before unification with Russia, there were no public schools in Georgia. By 1786 provisions of the Ministry of Education of Russia, public schools began opening up. First such school opened up in Tbilisi in 1802 with 45 students. The same year, the school curriculum was approved. This school was an upper-class establishment attended by the children of the aristocracy. In 1804 “Tbilisi School of Nobles" opened up. It was attended by the children of the clergy, craftsmen and merchants along with the children of the aristocracy. In 1830, it was converted to a classic gymnasium (classic school). In 1817, a six-year Theological Seminary opened up. It existed exactly 100 years (until 1917) and has brought up many known people. In 1835, in Georgia there were 90 schools of all types with 1800 students. In 1851, Georgia already had three gymnasiums: Tbilisi and Kutaisi classic gymnasiums and Tbilisi commercial gymnasium. These were 787 students enlisted in these three gymnasiums. In 139 schools of all types, 5554 disciples were enlisted. In the 1940s, significant cultural events took place in Georgia. In 1850, Georgian theatre was founded, in 1851 a Georgian magazine “Tsiskari” was established, several educational institutions opened up, etc.
    One of the most popular educational institutions in Georgia was Tbilisi Theological Seminary. This seminary produced not only clerics but also such prominent figures as Platon Ioseliani, Gabriel Kikodze, Dimitri Bakradze, Iakob Gogebashvili, Niko Tskhvedadze, Tedo Jhordania, Avksenti Tsagareli, Daniel Chonkadze, Lavrenti Ardaziani, Niko Lomouri, Ioseb Stalin, Sofrom Mgaloblishvili and others.  In 1894, a Theological Seminary opened up in Kutaisi. It contributed a significant role in the training of teachers. In 1879, " The Society for the Spreading of Literacy among Georgians” was founded which was headed by prominent Georgian public figures. This society opened and financed schools and libraries across all Georgia. Naturally, its success was the result of the support provided by the authorities. Because of this educational policy in the 19th century, great Georgian literature, science and art was developed. The climax of this educational progress was the founding of the University of Georgia in 1918. All of this took place while Georgia being part of the Russian Empire for one century.
    Concerning the life in the Soviet Union, or modernized Russian Empire, it is even uncomfortable to talk about Georgia's achievements in the socio-cultural development and the formation of national consciousness. In 70-ies of the 20th century, more than three thousand schools operated in Georgia. Schools were opened even in the smallest villages. By the end of the 20th century, Georgia had about twenty universities and the institutes where specialists were trained in all the existing fields of that time. Academy of Sciences of Georgia was based on such broad education network and operated with the entire system of scientific and research institutes.
    Participation of the Georgian scientists in international symposiums and conferences and the international assessments of their work testifies to what kind of resonance Georgian science had on the global scale at that time.

     

    GVANTSA KOPLATADZE
    SETTLEMENT OF ARMENIANS IN SAMTSKHE-JAVAKHETI IN THE 30-IES OF THE 19TH CENTURY

    Since ancient times, South Georgia, or so-called upper Kartli, Meskheti has been populated by indigenous Georgians. The demographic picture did not change even after the Turks conquered this land and established their rule. The change took place in 1830, when Russia annexed a part of Akhaltsikhe Khanate to Georgia after defeating Turks in the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829. The main cause of this change was Muslimized Meskhetians deciding to renounce their nationality. The fact of the matter was that in the Russian-Turkish war, most of them fought on the Turkish side. After the defeat of the Turks, they chose to leave their homeland and move to Turkey instead of reuniting with motherland under the Christian Empire. For obvious reasons, the Russian government and the command of the Russian army did not prevent this process. Having a hostile population in the border region of Turkey was not beneficial to the Russian Empire. Russia needed to have a loyal subject population, who along with their interests would protect the interests of the Empire.
    After considering many options, the Russian Government decided to relocate the Armenian Monophysites from Turkey there. They had assisted the Russian army during the Russian-Turkish war.  The Russian Empire gave them the right to settle in within the boundaries of the Empire, which would prevent their brutal punishment by Turks.

     

    GRIGOL RUKHADZE
    HAPPY SLAVES OF GLOBALIZATION

    The author confirms that the appointment of known representatives of the "United National Movement" - A.Kvitashvili, E.Zguladze, G. Getsadze, Z. Adeishvili, M. Saakashvili in Ukraine to high government positions made it clear that Georgia's ruling National Movement team of nine years was guided by a criminal international organization.  Globalist reforms carried out by nationals destroyed the education system, science and culture. The Nationals obtained managerial positions of mass media and established immoral, anti-Christian and anti-national spirit, especially on TV.  There were no national shrines, monuments or memorials left untouched by the punishing hand of local followers of globalization.
    Despite the fact that the members of the elite "National Movement" obediently fulfilled all anti-state tasks, their lost souls are still awaiting happiness, which only Mammon will grant. However, their intended treason has failed, and they have rendered themselves a verdict. Even though March 21st event was planned ostensibly to restore globalist order (in other words, to cause chaos in the country), the Georgian people did not want to go back into the Nationals' Gehenna. Moreover,if necessary “fire will igniteover the heads of Ghouls on brooms!”

     

    ELDAR BUBULASHVILI
    KONSTANTINE GVARAMADZE - DEFENDER OF ANTIQUITIES
    (One Unknown Document)

    The article describes the activities of a well-known educator and a public figure of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a native of southern Georgia (Meskheti) Konstantine Gvaramadze. The article speaks about his contributions to save the ancient Georgian cultural heritage. In order to preserve the existing Meskhetian art effects, he founded Akhaltsikhe Museum of local lore. He arranged ethnographic expeditions to collect antiquities which he exhibited in the museum. He donated unpublished manuscripts of his father, Ivan Gvaramadze to the museum and thus founded the department of manuscripts.
    The author of the article found a document dated 1936 in the archives of the Ministry of the Interior that Konstantine Gvaramadze sent to the leaders of the Georgian Government. In the document, he describes the difficult conditions of Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalaki in 20-30s of the 20th century. The appeal exposes anti-Georgian activities of the local Armenian Dashnaks and other Armenian nationals from Yerevan.
    K.Gvaramadze's appeal received no response, but the same problems are still relevant. Even today, some Armenian scientists and ecclesiastics make claims on ancient Georgian cathedrals. To this end, they do not hesitate distorting any historical facts.

     

    MAMUKA TSUKHISHVILI
    GAYOZ RECTOR
    “There is Nothing Sweeter than the Love of the Motherland”

    The activities of a famous 18th-19th century Georgian church leader, speaker, preacher and educator Gayoz Rector coincided with the most important era of Georgia. Gayoz Rector had voiced his opinion in almost every field of spiritual or secular disciplines. He founded and headed Telavi Theological Seminary. At times, he supervised dioceses of the Russian Church and worked on some translations. Strengthening the Russian-Georgian relationship should also be considered as an important achievement of his life.  OnAugust 20th1783 during a sermon at Sioni Cathedral, he expressed his utmost delight about the Treaty of Georgievsk concluded between the Russian Empire and the East Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti. Gayoz Rector emphasized that King Erekle's political decision had a crucial importance on Georgian people’s not only physical, but also spiritual salvation.

     

    BORIS DARCHIA
    SCIENCE AND INTEGRITY

    The article refutes Rostom Chkheidze's allegations that Pavle Ingorokva’ scientific heritage was ignored. It denies that the authorities and specifically Alexandre Baramidze opposed it. 

     

    GIORGI GOGOLASHVILI
    DAVID KLDIASHVILI AND THE GEORGIAN LANGUAGE

    Georgian classical writers have a unique attitude towards the Georgian language. According to them, the language is a writer's most important tool, the foundation of literature. David Kldiashvili is no exception. Unlike some writers, D. Kldiashvili has never written any critical and journalistic articles about the Georgian language; however, his work, particularly his memoirs “On the Path of my Life" provide rich material on this subject. As a rule, David Kldiashvili does not focus on a person’s appearance, external beauty. In his opinion, a person’s beauty and charm is in his speech, his tone and the use of Georgian language. The writer's overall standpoint on the Georgian language can be viewed in his words: “'The Georgian language is melodious and beautiful; it perfectly expresses any person’s thoughts, ideas and desires.”

     

    GRANI KAVTARIA
    SEVEN WISE MEN

    The Seven Sages (of Greece) or Seven Wise Men was the title given by ancient Greek tradition to seven early-6th-century BC philosophers, political leaders and law-givers.  Initially, there were about twenty nominations, but only seven would achieve the Sage status.  The Wise Men were renowned for their wisdom, erudition, education and political thinking. Their work played a decisive role in the political, economic and cultural life of Hellas.

     

    NIKO BERDZENISHVILI
    ERA OF TATAR RULE
    Theses

    It is hard to find another country that has endured as many attacks, invasions, seizures and destructions as Georgia throughout its long history. Many powerful states have perished from the face of the earth, and many nations have died out. However, the Georgian people withstood countless adversities; unparalleled heroisms of Georgian people saved their national identity.
    This article describes the fearless struggle of the Georgian people against the Mongol-Tatar conquerors in the 13th-14th centuries. Mongol-Tatars came out of the north-eastern Asia. Their leader, the unifier of many tribes and their first king was Genghis Khan. The particular power of the Tatars, their oddities, never-ending struggles between Christians and Muslims, an internal feud within the feudal societies contributed to the victory of the invaders. Culturally advanced Georgia (together with other neighboring countries) came under the yoke of the Tatars. Georgia could not come to the terms of the plight of the enslaved. Hatred towards the invaders raged in the hearts of the Georgian people. Flames of rebellion started erupting in region after region in Georgia; however, the enemy kept suppressing the resistance of the Georgians by various treacherous means.
    In 1327, when the Khanate was in turmoil, the Georgian king, the son of Demetrius, the Devoted, Giorgi took advantage of the favorable conditions and stopped paying tribute to the Tatars. Georgians ruthlessly defeated punitive troops of the enemy and a century long Tatar domination was brought to an end.

     

    VALERIAN MACHARADZE
    RUSSIAN-TURKISH WAR OF 1768-1774 AND GEORGIA
    Theses

    The key issue discussed in the thesis is General Totleben's venture. In historic documents, it is unilaterally appraised as the Russian State's purposeful political act. In fact, Totleben blocked the joint march of the Russian-Georgian army towards Akhaltsikhe. He also prevented King Erekle's plan to build a grand coalition against Turkey. By that, he harmed not only the interests of the people of Georgia, but also the interests of the Russian state. The Russian government made a fatal mistake by appointing Totleben, a former foreign spy to such a difficult and responsible position as the commander of the army sent to Georgia. This action greatly harmed the interests of Georgia as well as the public interest of Russia.