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Scientific and social journal
“SAMI SAUNJE” (three treasures)  №1(17), 2016
(in georgian)

SUMMARY

  • Grigol rukhadze, The political creed Of saint ilia the righteous
  • Gvantsa koplatadze, Saint ilia the righteous On international politics
  • Gulbaat rtskhiladze, The visa liberalization or the european Soap bubble for the georgians
  • Tina ivelashvili, “ukha” – the name of one Of the types of baked bread
  • Natela arveladze, Regarding the issue of the relationship Between the theater and the state
  • Mamuka tsukhishvili, Odzrkhe fortress and church
  • Archpriest vladislav tsipin, So, who started the first world war?
  • Akaki shanidze, Hidden treasure
  •  

    GRIGOL RUKHADZE
    THE POLITICAL CREED OF SAINT ILIA THE RIGHTEOUS

    From the 1970’s the representatives of so-called national movement policy have used the words of Saint Ilia the Righteous character, a mountaineer Lelt Gunia from “Letters of a Traveler” as a Georgian political slogan:” We should belong to ourselves”. Saint Ilia the Righteous wrote the story when he was 24. With these words, the leaders of the national movement demonstrate not only the pursuit of independence but also the break of union between Russia and Georgia. The author, based on the analysis of journalistic letters of Ilia Chavchavadze, concludes that Saint Ilia the Righteous, in fact, was a supporter of preserving the relationship between Georgia and Russia. He openly expressed his love and respect towards Russia for their support and care of Georgia.

     

    GVANTSA KOPLATADZE
    SAINT ILIA THE RIGHTEOUS ON INTERNATIONAL POLITICS

    Saint Ilia the Righteous did not aspire to become a politician. As the ultimate goal of his life, he considered serving his motherland and putting the physical and spiritual salvation of his native people above all. In choosing so, he bestowed great responsibilities upon himself as a defender of the national values. It was this high degree of responsibility that led his interest into international, particularly European politics, which just like today is the leading place in world politics. He was well aware that singling out Georgia and considering the present and future of the Georgian nation by itself, separate from the overall destiny of humanity was impossible. The basis of the letters of Ilia the Righteous about international politics is his opinion of the existence of two contrary ideas: “People for politics” and “Politics for people.” He believed that the entire political history of Europe represented the struggle of these two points. He considered the politics of the leading European countries, the UK, Germany and France from the perspective of fairness and morality. He concluded that its rulers were the followers of the first notion, people for politics, which meant sacrificing their own people.

     

    GULBAAT RTSKHILADZE
    THE VISA LIBERALIZATION OR THE EUROPEAN SOAP
    BUBBLE FOR THE GEORGIANS

    In recent years, the frustration of a large part of the Georgian people towards the West has become very noticeable. The change of sentiment has its reasons. However, the Government, political parties, media and non-governmental organizations do not share the same viewpoint and religiously continue their admiration of “a steadfast course towards the West”. Nevertheless, it is clear that the current public opinion, is significantly different from the previous years and decades - the image of the West in Georgia has severely shaken. The author analyzes the issue in this article and comes to a conclusion, that due to weakened by the occurrence of greater social problems in recent years, including a refugee problem from the Near East, Europe is not willing to help improve the social status of the population of Georgia by visa liberalization. The article reveals provocative politics of the EU Eastern Partnership. It also highlights the desire of Georgian bureaucracy to bind Georgia to Brussels, under Washington’s political control which benefits only the bureaucracy rather than broad sectors of the population. This connection and the current status of relations between the center (Brussels) and the periphery (Tbilisi), differs from that of the Soviet Union when Georgia’s standard of living reached unprecedented heights. P.S. Eurasia Institute produced a documentary movie “The Vilayet of Gurjistan”. It shows what is taking place in Syria, along with Turkey’s foreign policy and the possible impact of Islamism and the consequences on Georgia. Not so long ago some information emerged that “Islamic State,” declared Georgia its “vilayet,” i.e. province. Historically, the Ottoman Empire also considered Georgia its vilayet-just as it is hinted by the title of the movie. The film examines the situation in Syria and states that if President Bashar al-Assad resigns the Syrian Christians, Shiites and Kurds will face genocide. Most of the Sunni population who do not want Islamist terror will remain without protection. A critical problem remains the policy of Saudi Arabia and Turkey, supporting Islamism and terrorism. Concerning Georgia, Turkey is pursuing a policy of artificial support of the uncontrolled construction of mosques and madrasas in Georgia. Turkey uses radicalized Muslim youth for its purposes - thus far in Syria, but according to the movie, in the future, it will be done in Georgia too. The film can be found on the Internet on YouTube by typing “Gurjistal Vilayet” (a documentary) in the search window.

     

    TINA IVELASHVILI
    “UKHA” – THE NAME OF ONE OF THE TYPES OF BAKED BREAD

    The Georgian bread referred to as Lavash drastically differs from the bread with the same name of neighboring nations. It differs by shape (of finished product), preparation, baking technology and ritual significance. In every corner of Georgia, where this kind of bread is popular, it is baked using leavened dough (with yeast). The other so-called Lavash bread (from Georgia’s neighbors) is baked from unleavened dough (without yeast). Based on this information, it would be fair if its authentic (historical), Turkish name of the bread baked without yeast “Ukha” is restored. In the past, in Georgia, Lavash bread was only baked during specific dates (New Year’s Eve/Day, Easter, during days of remembrance of the dead) for ritualistic purposes and not as a daily food. For neighboring nations this type of bread used to be part of the daily menu and in certain instances it still is. The author believes that so-called “Armenian Lavash,” due to its preparation and baking technique (without yeast, from unleavened dough) should not be considered Lavash but as a widely known type of bread in the Southern Georgia from earlier times called “Ukha.” From the information presented, it is clear that the name of this type of baked bread which has become the topic of an argument of neighboring researchers should be referred to as Ukha and not Lavash. Its original preparation and baking technology and real Turkish name has invariably been preserved only among the indigenous Georgian population of Samtskhe-Javakheti. According to the author, the Georgian population of Samtskhe-Javakheti adopted this simple way to baking bread from other ethnic groups in 17th and 18th centuries and used it during the extreme times of hardship. The reason for this assumption is the name, the preparation and baking technology that is still used by the local indigenous population of Samtskhe-Javakheti to the present day. It is possible that Georgian farmers could have adopted this type of bread making technique from their neighboring Turkish population while on summer pastures, and gradually improved it. The indigenous Georgian population of Samtskhe-Javakheti have long been aware of the kind of bread with the ancient Persian name of “Lavash” made with a special technique using yeast dough and baked in “Purna (and elsewhere in eastern Georgia, in” tone “). It is evident that Armenians have adopted this type of bread baking technology from the Turkish-speaking population. For the name, Armenia used a Persian word which is widespread and firmly entrenched in Georgia: the name Lavash. Moreover, Armenia presented the Lavash bread to UNESCO, as the heritage of the Armenian intangible cultural heritage. Whatever name we use for this type of baked bread, its preparation and baking technology, as well as the name preserved to present day in Samtskhe-Javakheti, indicates that it is the heritage of the Turkish-speaking people. Consequently, in UNESCO intangible cultural heritage it should be listed under the name of ‘Ukha’, as a legacy of Azerbaijanis and Turks, and not listed as Armenian.

     

    NATELA ARVELADZE
    REGARDING THE ISSUE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
    THE THEATER AND THE STATE

    Over the centuries, professional theatre, as an asset of the State, influenced intellectual and sensory perceptions of society by verbal and visual acts while addressing specific issues. By expressing the ideas of national importance, sometimes it promoted the principle interests of the officials and sometimes the interests of the public. The theatre inspired the audience by performances and thus participated in the formation of the society. The issue of the Theatre and State and State and the Theater in the society became real. According to the author, in this respect, Greek political theatres of ancient times; in particular Athenian tragedy by Sophocles Oedipus the King is very instructive. Based on the interpretation of the myth, Sophocles parabolically suggests that the balanced relationship between the state and society, to a greater extent, is due to the existing civic duty and legal relationship between them. The didactics of the tragedian highlights an indispensability of the protection of principles of democracy – in each instance; He also demonstrates how important it is for the normalization of a theater-state to have a ruler with unique qualities - wisdom, authority, and a sense of perceived responsibility;. Demos acquired the right to be demanding towards the ruler who was elected based on the individual characteristics. By the theatrical presentation of this tragedy, Sophocles acts as a mentor and preached and influenced the mind of demos and the ruler. Thus, he singled out the issue of the relationship of the theatre-State in democratic Athens. This principle can be used for guidance by the modern-day theatre as well. Didactics of Sophocles has not lost relevance even in today’s world.

     

    MAMUKA TSUKHISHVILI
    ODZRKHE FORTRESS AND CHURCH

    The author has visited the ancient Odzrkhe (Abastumani) Fortress and the Church; where in early times sacred king Vakhtang Gorgasali and King Tamar prayed and asked the Lord for the protection of Georgia. After surveying the site and studying the written sources, one can say with confidence that in King Tamar’s Odzrkhe Fortress, the church has been present since ancient times. The church requires adequate attention and careful study from experts. These actions will help clarify and definitively confirm the considerations of our famous scientists regarding the fortress and the church, and also, awaken the interest of our youth towards one of the unique resorts in South Georgia, the ancient Odzrkhe.

     

    ARCHPRIEST VLADISLAV TSIPIN
    SO, WHO STARTED THE FIRST WORLD WAR?

    The author is a well-known modern historian who criticizes one of the blogger’s postings in social media. According to the posting the entire responsibility for the outbreak of the First World War rests on Russia. During that period, Russia was ruled by Holy Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II, and thus, these accusations are directed towards him. The author, based on historical documents, concludes that on July 19, 1914 (old calendar) Germany declared war on Serbia. Emperor Nicholas II could not let Orthodox Christian Serbia be torn into pieces.

     

    AKAKI SHANIDZE
    HIDDEN TREASURE

    Presented here is an article of the known Georgian scientist, academician Akaki Shanidze. It was published in 1962; however, it retains its usefulness, relevance and importance. Despite the reasonable arguments and sincere desire of the academician and the support of many writers and publishers to introduce Asomtavruli (“capital letters”, “round”) script in the modern Georgian alphabet as capital letters to begin sentences, the issue is still not resolved. Out of the three main types of fifteen-century history Georgian alphabet only one is used - Mkhedruli (“civilian”). Asomtavruli (“capital letters”, “round) and Nuskhuri (“inventory” or “schedule”) are used only by the Georgian Orthodox Church.