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Scientific and social journal
“SAMI SAUNJE” (three treasures)  №1(7), 2013
(in georgian)

SUMMARY

  • lia Tavberidze, The Three Expeditions of Ekvtime Takaishvili in Tao-Klarjeti
  • Vakhtang Beridze, Niko Pirosmanashvili
  • Gvantsa Koplatadze, Eduard-Giorgi Shevardnadze
  • Gulbaat Rtskhiladze, Old and New Priorities of Georgia’s Foreign Policy
  • Bondo Arveladze, About the Nationality of Queen Shushanik
  • Mamuka Tsukhishvili, Iacob Tarashvili - A True Knight
  • Valerian Macharadze, Treaty of Georgievsk
  • Tina Ivelashvili, The Devastated Atskuri Temple of Our Lady
  • Boris Darchia, Where Did Baileti Church Used to Be Located?
  • Shota Mirianashvili, Glacier, Bethlehem Cave and Bethlehem Church on Natsarkedi
  • Grani Kavtaria, Nero. Demons of the Roman Empire
  •  

    ILIA TAVBERIDZE
    THE THREE EXPEDITIONS OF
    EKVTIME TAKAISHVILI IN TAO-KLARJETI

    Ekvtime Takaishvili has performed an outstanding service in his research of Southern Georgia. He was a true patriot of his native land and he was canonized by the Georgian Church (Person of Divine). He organized and carried out three expeditions in this area tormented by a fateful and tragic history. The expeditions took place in 1902, 1907 and 1917 and were the most productive in examining the historical heritage of Tao- Klarjeti. These expeditions have created a whole epoch in the scientific study of the historic churches and monasteries, ancient monuments, castles, architecture, inscriptions, epigraphy, sculptures and wall paintings that existed in the territory of South Georgia. On October 13, 1921, these Georgian regions were transferred to Turkey by the Soviet Government by the Treaty of Kars; therefore, it became impossible to conduct any research of the area- Tao-Klarjeti, which was such a vital part of our history. Later works of Georgian scientists were largely based on the legacy of Ekvtime Takaishvili and Niko Marr.
    The purpose of the expedition of Ekvtime Takaishvili was not just visiting the temples. The scientist went to South Georgia together with other professionals and copied inscriptions, frescoes and measured parameters of churches with utmost precision. He discovered many unknown temples and fortresses. Many monuments that were found, sketched, measured and photographed during the expedition no longer exist today. One of the important assets of the scientific expedition to Tao-Klarjeti was the study of Bana.
    Ekvtime Takaishvili published the materials from all three expeditions in the following order: in 1902 - right after the expedition, in 1907 – while in exile in Paris, and in 1917 - after his return to Georgia. The article provides an overview of the objectives and key results of the three major expeditions to South Georgia.

     

    VAKHTANG BERIDZE
    NIKO PIROSMANASHVILI

    The book is dedicated to the works of the famous Georgian artist Niko Pirosmanashvili (1862-1918). Pirosmanashvili did not receive any training, but thanks to his extraordinary talent and life experience, he created samples of high art, his own world of artistic images. Pirosmani’s paintings were influenced by the social conditions of his time and place. His diverse works include scenes of rural life, portraits and still life. Pirosmanashvili’s favorite works include images of the inhabitants of old Tbilisi, the scenes of revelry. He left us a gallery of different social strata.

     

    GVANTSA KOPLATADZE
    EDUARD-GIORGI SHEVARDNADZE

    The reason a small country like Georgia was able to preserve its national identity despite constant enemy attacks and defensive fights throughout its existence should be sought in the high spiritual culture of the Georgian nation. Apparently, Eduard Shevardnadze, even when he was governing the republic as the first Secretary of the Communist Party of Georgia fully understood the importance of culture in the identity of the nation. This is evidenced by the dramatic rise in almost all the spheres of spiritual culture in Georgia in the early 70-80-s of the 20th century. As confirmed by well-known cultural figures, this was taking place by the support and patronage of Eduard Shevardnadze himself.

     

    GULBAAT RTSKHILADZE
    OLD AND NEW PRIORITIES OF GEORGIA’S FOREIGN POLICY

    The author reviews the resolution accepted by the Georgian parliament in regards to the county’s foreign policy. He highlights the reasons for such non-standard decisions. He points out both the aspect of domestic political conjuncture as well as the aspect of external interference.
    According to the author, in general, the “Georgian Dream” managed to maintain its principles in the document and shielded them from anti-Russian demagoguery of the “Nationals;” however, section 18 still contains a highly unfavorable mandate for Georgia. As a result, not only customs, political and military alliance but also the ability to restore diplomatic relations with Russian is not possible. In the author’s opinion, this circumstance will hinder achieving the solution in territorial as well as visa regime issue.
    The author pays particular attention to the visit of Catholicos‑Patriarch of All Georgia Ilia II to Moscow in January 2013. The author calls on the state government to strengthen the results of the visit of the Patriarch and work more effectively with the Russian Government and improve the Georgian-Russian relationship. At the same time, the author advises ignoring the anti-Russian and pseudo-patriotic hysteria caused by the “National Movement”' which the author claims is done solely for publicity purposes.

     

    BONDO ARVELADZE
    ABOUT THE NATIONALITY OF QUEEN SHUSHANIK

    The author, based on the Georgian and Armenian historical sources, concludes that Holy Queen Shushanik (5th century), the daughter of Commander Vartan Mamikonian, was Georgian by nationality.

     

    MAMUKA TSUKHISHVILI
    IACOB TARASHVILI - A TRUE KNIGHT

    On August 30, 1907 year (N.S.September 12th) the heart of one of the great eras of Georgia ceased beating near Tsitsamuri. Ilia Chavchavadze and his faithful companion of his later years, his adopted son, Iacob Tarashvili were killed. Iacob, with his short but heroic life has taken a righteous place among the famous sons of Georgia.
    On August 30, 1907 year (N.S.September 12th) the heart of one of the great eras of Georgia ceased beating near Tsitsamuri. Ilia Chavchavadze and his faithful companion of his later years, his adopted son, Iacob Tarashvili were killed. Iacob, with his short but heroic life has taken a righteous place among the famous sons of Georgia.

     

    VALERIAN MACHARADZE
    TREATY OF GEORGIEVSK

    The Treaty of Georgievsk was the first international, bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti. The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti voluntarily accepted the patronage of Russia. With this act king Erekle II “in his name and the name of his heirs and successors of theirs” forever renounced recognition of any supreme power and patronage of Persia or any other country except Russia by the eastern Georgia. Russia pledged to protect eastern Georgia from foreign enemies, to assist in reclaiming lost lands, and the lands would continue to remain in the possession of the Georgian kings.
    The Treaty of Georgievsk was a drastic change, not only in the Russian‑Georgian relationship but also Georgian‑Persian and Georgian‑Turkish relationships.

    The Treaty of Georgievsk marked a new beginning for the Turkish-Russian and Persian‑Russian relationship related to Georgia as well as Transcaucasia as an international treaty. It would dramatically differ from the traditional relationships that took place for centuries. Furthermore, this act presented the issue of the Caucasus from an entirely different viewpoint.

     

    TINA IVELASHVILI
    THE DEVASTATED ATSKURI TEMPLE OF OUR LADY

    While lamenting the desolation and destruction of Georgian cultural monuments located in the lost, historic, territory, we forget there are many historic monuments still located in Georgia; some monuments are being destroyed right in front of our eyes. Among these monuments is one of the most notable historical Christian Chapels ‑ Atskuri temple of Our Lady.
    Atskuri temple of Our Lady is the only monument of corresponding age of Georgian historical monuments located on the territory of Turkey for its architecture, spatial dimensions and the epoch‑making significance. If not restoration, at least the preservation of this temple should be considered a crucial matter. While the temple still has some of its original appearance (not totally destroyed), we should make this an urgent, top priority.

     

    BORIS DARCHIA
    WHERE DID BAILETI CHURCH USED TO BE LOCATED?

    The paper demonstrates that, in contrast to current reality, Baileti used to be stretched to the right side of Supsa River. There, at the junction of today's Jumati and Silauri, Baileti church stood in front of the Gurieli palace. The church was destroyed in the late 50s of the 20th century.

     

    SHOTA MIRIANASHVILI
    GLACIER, BETHLEHEM CAVE AND BETHLEHEM CHURCH ON NATSARKEDI

    The article explains that in the poem “Gandegili” (The Hermit), the author, Ilia Chavchavadze does not describe the monastery (currently in ruins) built in the Caucasus Mountains on Natsarkedi (ridge) dividing Gergeti and Abano glaciers. In actuality, he refers to a cave in the center of a rocky bastion at an altitude of about 4100 meters. It should be noted that the description provided by Ilia exactly matches in reality.

     

    GRANI KAVTARIA
    NERO. DEMONS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

    Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus - Emperor Nero was a worthy successor to the tyrannical acts of his uncle Caligula. Just like his uncle, he was not interested in the state policy. If Caligula considered himself God, Nero believed that he was a divine entertainer and singer. The stage of his actions was the amphitheater. Many innocent people fell victim to the bloody regime of Nero. He is notoriously known as an early persecutor of Christians. In the history of Rome, Nero entered as Nero the Beast.