სინერგია
 
 
ს ი ნ ე რ გ ი ა

Print

 
Untitled Document
       
 
 
  Untitled Document

ახალი ნომრის
სარეკლამო რგოლი

გადმოწერეთ

 

Scientific and social journal

“SAMI SAUNJE” (three treasures)  №2(2), 2011

( in georgian)

 

SUMMARY

 

  • David Tsotskolauri, Vazha-pshavela – a judge of the natural origins of national and universal values
  • Levan Beburishvili, The concept of conscience in vazha-pshavela’s works
  • Giorgi Gogolashvili, Dedaena (mother tongue) in communist era and nowadays
  • Avtandil Nikoleishvili, Folklore of turkish georgians
  • Gvantsa Koplatadze, Religious toleration of the georgian people
  • Nodar Lomouri, Short memoirs about a person who served her people with modesty
  • Mamuka Tsukhishvili, A way paved by devolution and hard work
  • Simon Janashia, About one example of distortion of the historical truth
  • Grani Kavtaria, Democracy in ancient greece
  • Anzor Totadze, Troubles of georgian villages
  • Eter Urushadze, World population
  • Merab Makarashvili, About socio-economic development and territorial stabilization activities of georgia
  • Zaza Vashakmadze, Ecclesiastical court system in the orthodox church of georgia
  • Hegumen Peter (meshcherinov), An adequate understanding of the concepts of humility and obedience
  • Teimuraz Panjikidze, A book that will make your blood run cold  
  •  

    DAVID TSOTSKOLAURI
    VAZHA-PSHAVELA – A JUDGE OF THE NATURAL
    ORIGINS OF NATIONAL AND UNIVERSAL VALUES

    The article features the relationship of national and universal values that are fundamental to Vazha-Pshavela’s ideology. The article provides the assessment of not only the diversity of interconnection and interrelation of the values, but it also shows natural and social foundations of their origination and development.
    The author notes that according to Vazha-Pshavela’s beliefs, the basis of the hierarchical system of values, first and foremost, are uncontested laws of nature, and then the desire of individual self-improvemen by different nations. In the poet’s mind, distinctive, original national phenomena are the inexhaustible source of positive or negative human values.

     

    LEVAN BEBURISHVILI
    THE CONCEPT OF CONSCIENCE IN VAZHA-PSHAVELA’S WORKS

     Vazha-Pshavela (1861-1915) belongs to those creative artists who pay exceptional attention to ethics. Hence, Vazha shows keen interest towards the ethical phenomenon of conscience. He dedicated his verse “Song of Conscience” and poem “Conscience” to this topic. The portrayal of conscience is depicted in various forms in Vazha-Pshavela’s literary compositions. Vazha shares a theistic point of view when illustrating the phenomenon of conscience. Similar to other Christian-thinkers, he attributes conscience, a morality inherent in all humans, to divinity. The poet believes that conscience is a divine “voice within”.
    Vazha-Pshavela’s literary activities occur during an era of spiritual and cultural crisis, a decadence ensued with various immoral concepts. Vazha enthusiastically followed historical and cultural events taking place in the world. His disagreement with the philosophical views of Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche is well known. Netzsche began his “campaign against morality” and harshly criticized the prominent moral schemes calling the establishment of moral systems a “calamitous error”. Vazha fundamentally rejected this view and believed that the existence of human society without conscience is unfeasible. The only way to overcome the moral crisis is to return to the divine origin.

     

     

    GIORGI GOGOLASHVILI
    DEDAENA (MOTHER TONGUE) IN COMMUNIST ERA AND NOWADAYS

     As soon as the Soviet Authorities were established, even before ack­nowledging its own constitution the Bolshevik Authorities recognized Georgian as a state language. In fact, this was a continuation of the tradition established by the Democratic Georgia. The Bolshevik government meticulously protected the interests of the state language. For the duration of 70 years, they cared about the development of the Georgian language, preserved its purity, and addressed the issues related to teaching and learning the language.
    Over the past two decades we have lost this tradition and Georgian State language has encountered numerous problems. However strange it might sound, today, we long for the standing the Georgian language had during the Communist era... The Bolshevik care for the mother tongue is exemplary even nowadays...

     

     

    AVTANDIL NIKOLEISHVILI

    FOLKLORE  OF TURKISH GEORGIANS

     

    Despite the fact that the Turkish population includes a significant number of ethnic Georgians (it is impossible to determine the exact number today), they have played quite a little role in the history of  Georgian culture. Even though we come across some famous Turkish people with a Georgian ethnic origin, they have done little to nothing for their historical motherland. The first patriot who set a new stage from this point of view, in the consciousness of Turkish Georgians was Akhmed Melashvili (Ozkan). He made it the mission of his professional life to revive the national self-consciousness in Turkish Georgian people who have been cut off from their roots for more than 3 centuries.
     The lack of Georgian literary work in Turkey together with other important factors is the result of the fact that regardless of the number of Georgian population, the majority of it is not able to read or write in Georgian. Because of this, even if there had been a Georgian writer in Turkey, he would have had no audience. Another big factor is that Turkish Georgians were completely isolated from the Georgian speaking world for centuries.
    The creative abilities of Georgians living in Turkey were mostly revealed in folklore. The majority of it was created by public narrators and orally passed down from generation to generation. Most of it was popularized from common Georgian poetic folklore. Unlike poetic genre, prose has taken a very small part in Turkish Georgian creative work. The only works created this way are folk tales, legends and stories that have barely reached us.

     

    GVANTSA KOPLATADZE
    RELIGIOUS TOLERATION OF THE GEORGIAN PEOPLE

    The prerequisite for accepting the divine teachings of Christ for Jewish people was the faith of the Old Testament, for Greek people it was highly developed literature, and philosophy. For Georgian people this role was carried out by God-given gift of love. Our literature and history is a testament to this. The article is devoted to the religious tolerance that has become a natural and integral character of the Georgian people.

     

    NODAR LOMOURI
    SHORT MEMOIRS ABOUT A PERSON WHO
    SERVED HER PEOPLE WITH MODESTY

    Our generation has endured rather difficult and strenuous conditions: On one hand there was no democracy, freedom of speech or consecration of national aspirations; however, on the other hand we were happy because we were intercommunicating with wonderful people, talented writers, artists, and world-class scientists. In additions to these famous people of Georgian society there were ordinary citizens accomplishing kind deeds silently and modestly, motivated by the future of the Georgian Nation.
    One of these types of people was an employee of the Institute of Functional Diseases Keto Mdivani. Among the good deeds of Keto Mdivani, the most note-worthy is her organizing an educational group at her apartment (Kipiani Street, Mtatsminda). Ms. Keto’s son was born with an eye disease that kept him from being able to live an active life. Keto started inviting Otar’s friends and his peers whose average age was 16-17 years. They gathered in the evenings reading literary works, personal essays, held discussions and studied Georgian history. The requirement was that everything had to be connected to Georgian culture, inspiring patriotic sentiments and anticommunist feelings. Later we called this group the first dissident group in Georgia for this reason.
    It is important to mention that it was during one of these meetings when we came to know a wonderful Georgian poet Lado Asatiani’s work. The members of our group introduced Asatiani’s works to their school mates and acquaintances thus influencing the development of literary taste of our youth. It has also helped strengthening of national self-consciousness of the future generation.

    It would be very helpful if groups like this were being created today too.

     

    MAMUKA TSUKHISHVILI
    A WAY PAVED BY DEVOLUTION AND HARD WORK

    The letter is dedicated to a distinguished person of our time, a worthy Georgian patriot Mr. Bidzina Ivanishvili. In the author’s mind he is not just an ordinary man, an ordinary Georgian or an ordinary patriot. With the emergence of Bidzina Ivanishvili a new expression has been established in the Georgian reality – a selfless philanthropist and a simple man.
    Bidzina Ivanishvili has created an enormous business empire which originated in mid 90s. He started a rebuilding era of his motherland with an unheard speed. He took the heavy responsibility upon himself and the result was immediate. He is the only philanthropist businessman in the whole world who brought back “life “to his native region Sachkhere. He rebuilt, beautified and brought alive culture, education, science and art; He is the person who saved numerous lives, fought without arms and saved Imereti, especially in 2008…
    Bidzina Ivanishvili is a God sent and people like him should be cherished, embraced and loved.  

     

    SIMON  JANASHIA
    ABOUT ONE EXAMPLE OF DISTORTION
    OF THE HISTORICAL TRUTH

    Academician S. Janashia’s critical work – “About One Example of Distortion of the Historical Truth ” (1974) was written about Professor N. Tokarski’s book “Architecture of Ancient Armenia” (1946).

    In N. Tokarski’s book the ancient Georgian territory Tao-Klarjeti is named as an Armenian territory without any proper argumentation or scientific documentation. The author also disregards the countless inscriptions on the church and monastery walls. The inscriptions depict not only the construction details but also the Georgian names of the builders as well. The publishing of this book by the Russian scientist caused a rightful indignation and anger of Georgian scientists and Georgian society. “But back then, when if was virtually prohibited to write anything negative about the neighboring people (Georgians were prohibited to “offend” Armenians) nobody could imagine that Tokarski’s claims would be addressed. Simon Janashia was able to do a lot that was impossible for others due to his prestige. As a result, His work was published, everything was presented correctly based on the Georgian, foreign and specifically on Armenian sources “– Remembers Academician M. Lortkipanidze.

    Nowadays, it might sound strange, but Armenian scientists working in Russia and their Russian friends had made arrangements to have Tokarski’s scurrilous book be presented for Stalin Award; however, due to academician S. Janashia’s work the plan failed. S. Janashia’s work should “serve as an example as to how Historical distortions like N.Tokarski’s should be addressed. The book served its purpose well. Tokarski was reprimanded for the remarks and the publishing company was scolded as well” writes Academician P. Zakaraia.

    As it later turned out, Tokarski’s reprimand was an absolute sham, as the book was published the second time in Yerevan. In the last quarter of the 20s century Armenian scientists started claiming Tao-Klarjeti Georgian Architectural monuments again. Among them was a Doctor of Arts Tigran Marutian who published an extensive monograph “Deep Armenia” (1978, in Armenian). In it the brilliant Georgian monuments of Tao-Klarjeti are presented as Armenian. This book was highly criticized by Academician V. Beridze, Academician P. Zaqaraia and Professor B. Arveladze.

    Even today the anti Georgian campaign  continues in Yerevan and unfortunately, in Moscow too. A very good example of this is the 3rd volume of Orthodox Encyclopedia published in Moscow in 2003.

    Despite the fact that Armenian historians virtually have not been able to answer to academician S. Janashia and other Georgian scientists, they still continue their attempts to “prove“ that Tao-Klarjeti and Georgian architectural monuments are Armenian. The Armenian historians became especially active after the request by Georgian Catholicos-Patriarch, His Holiness Ilia II to the Turkish government to transfer some of the Georgian churches to Georgia. This is why we have decided to publish Academician S. Janashia’s work – “ About One Example of Distortion of the Historical Truth” in Journal “Sami Saunje” (Three Treasures). The work has not lost it scientific importance and even today it is a worthy response to the some of the unbecoming Armenian scientists who are falsifying the history.

      

    GRANI  KAVTARIA
    DEMOCRACY IN ANCIENT GREECE

    The concept of Greek democracy was based on the equality of duly qualified citizens. It should be noted that fully accredited citizenship was a privilege of only a small segment of the population. The article focuses on limited Spartan Democracy system that constituted to its isolation from the rest of the Hellenistic policies.
    Democracy as the classical form was cradled in Athens. Ekklesia, the Assembly was the highest sovereign governing body in Athens. Any adult male citizen of age could take part in it and express his opinions. Protecting the democratic principles was the responsibility of Boule, the Council of Five Hundred. Another important political institution was the courts, Heliaia. They were composed of large number of jurymen to avoid any corruption, self-interest or building up to a power base (Not taking into account some isolated cases).
    The age of a citizen had a great importance in Greek Democracy. No person under the age of 30 could hold any positions. A council known as Gerousia consisted of 28 elders over the age of 60.
    Pericles had a great influence in clamping down the Athenian Democracy. He made the privilege of citizenship almost unattainable for non native Athenian population.

     A concept of citizenship was formed in the Greek mentality of Classic period. Athenian Democracy protected the integrity of full-fledged citizens. 

     

    ANZOR  TOTADZE
    TROUBLES OF GEORGIAN VILLAGES

    The article features the origination of Georgian villages, their role in forming Georgian traditions, rituals, customs and Georgian way of life. The article compares smaller group of village population to the whole population based on the analysis of different periods and different regions. The article provides village structures and the numbers of desolated villages based on the number of residents. It demonstrates that number of village dwellers is declining as a result of natural decrease of population. Just in 1997-2004 in Georgian villages 39,481 more people died than were born. The natural decrease of the rural population is taking place in almost all the regions with predominantly Georgian population with the exception of Adjara .
    The author states that if this tendency continues and special measures are not taken, in the nearest two to three decades Racha-Lechkhumi, Tusheti, Pshav-Khevsureti and other historical provinces of Georgia will become desolate.

     

    ETER  URUSHADZE
    WORLD POPULATION

    The article features the total number and composition of world population according to the demographical parameters. Specifically, it forecasts the total number of population by the year of 2050. According to the article the countries with high number of population will grow at a fast pace. Indian population will outnumber Chinese population and by the year of 2050 it will reach more that 1600 million. The article reviews each continent and country by birth rates, literacy, number of people per hectare of agricultural land and other parameters. A conclusion is drawn based on the opinion of the scientists that the rapid growth of world population is one of five critical issues facing humanity.

      

    MERAB  MAKARASHVILI
    ABOUT SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TERRITORIAL STABILIZATION ACTIVITIES OF GEORGIA

    This article reviews the ways of socio-economic development and political stabilization of Georgia, the country that has a key location on the continent of Eurasia, specifically in the Caucasus, due to the development of former great Silk Road transport corridor (TRACECA) Europe-Caucasus-Asia.

     

    ZAZA VASHAKMADZE
    ECCLESIASTICAL COURT SYSTEM IN THE
    ORTHODOX CHURCH OF GEORGIA

     The article is the first attempt to analyze a justice system of the Church of Georgia in the modern era. The issue is rather urgent and at the same moment very timely. Since, due to strengthening of the Church of Georgia, the settlement of legal problems becomes all the more necessary. This issue was not critical during the Communist era because due to repressions the number of clergy was gradually decreasing. Fortunately, from the 90s of the twentieth century the number of both the clergy and the parishioners significantly increased and consequently the issue became more relevant. Today, the Church of Georgia has reached such a level both canonically and politically that it is time to review and resolve this issue in the most reasonable way.
    The article uses the governing regulations of the Church of Georgia as the starting point, which describes the general principles of the ecclesiastical court of the Church of Georgia, the hierarchy of the system and partly, the definition of punishment.
    The analysis of the ecclesiastical court systems of other countries proved that they possessed “Regulations of Court Authority and Activities” for each level of instances. Unfortunately, the author could not locate the regulations of court authority and activities of the Church of Georgia which at this point leaves us with an unanswered question: Has is never been accepted or has it yet be located?

    According to the author, one should study and analyze from the viewpoint of canonical theory of law if the decision of ecclesiastical court can takes precedence over other similar cases.

    The Article aims to promote the ecclesiastical court as an instance of church. The ultimate goal being to address and resolve today’s problems in a speedy and fair way in ecclesiastical court and thus strengthen the Orthodox Church of Georgia.

     

    HEGUMEN PETER (MESHCHERINOV)
    AN ADEQUATE UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPTS
    OF HUMILITY AND OBEDIENCE

    The article analyzes a book about contemporary monasticism by Archimandrite Lazarus Abashidze - ”Torment of Love” (published by the Saratov Eparhijag. Saratov, 2005). The author criticizes inadequate explanation of the concepts of humility and obedience by Archimandrite Lazarus and his associates (eg, Archimandrite Raphael Karelin). The article is of particular importance to the Georgian parish, because it mentions the clergy serving in the Church of Georgia and quite possibly, their views are unintentionally shared by some of their flock.

     

    TEIMURAZ PANJIKIDZE
    A BOOK THAT BOOK THAT WILL MAKE YOUR BLOOD RUN COLD

    The article is a review of Armenologist Bondo Arveladze and late President of Abkhazian Science Academy, Head of Sokhumi University Georgian History Department Teimuraz Mibchuani’s painful book: “Bagramian Armenian Battalion and Georgian Ethnic Cleansing in Abkhazia.” The book describes the unspeakable gruesomeness, atrocities and killings committed by this Armenian battalion in Abkhazia against the peaceful Georgian population.