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ახალი ნომრის
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გადმოწერეთ

 

Scientific and social journal
“SAMI SAUNJE” (three treasures)  №2(4), 2012
(in georgian)

SUMMARY

  • Giorgi Gogolashvili, The Life and Work of Iacob Gogebashvili
  • Levan Beburishvili, A Few Aspects of Iacob Gogebashvili’s Pedagogical Doctrine
  • Gvantsa Koplatadze, Sometimes It Is Better Not to Beat around the Bush
  • Mamuka Tsukhishvili, Davit Gareji
  • Bondo Arveladze, "Northern Gate of Armenia - Javakh, Lori"
  • Tina Ivelashvili, Silence Is Not Always Golden
  • Teimuraz Glonti, Phenomenon of Georgian Table and Feast
  • Anzor Totadze, Demographic Situation and Nation's Spiritual Life
  • Gulbaat Rtskhiladze, The Influence of Religious Views on U.S. Foreign Policy
  • Teimuraz Panjikidze, Do You Consider Yourselves Georgians?
  • Teimuraz Mirianashvili, Moral Assessment of Western and Eastern Civilizations
  • Grani Kavtaria, Gnaeus Marcius Coriolanus
  • Grigol Rukhadze, Georgian Edition of St. Maximus the Confessor's “life”
  • Boris Darchia, Source of One Painting by IovaneSabanisdze
  • Shota Matitashvili, Georgian Monasticism in 6th-8th Centuries: Syrian Fathers
  •  

    GIORGI GOGOLASHVILI
    THE LIFE AND WORK OF IACOB GOGEBASHVILI

     The work consists of two parts. The first part, which is presented here, tells us about the greatest Georgian public figure of 19th century, Jacob Gogebashvili’s work and accomplishment. The author demonstrates that Gogebashvili has performed outstanding services by awakening and reviving the national spirit, by creating and developing Georgian literary language and by establishing the Georgian public school system in 19th century Georgia.

     

    LEVAN BEBURISHVILI
    A FEW ASPECTS OF IACOB GOGEBASHVILI’S
    PEDAGOGICAL DOCTRINE

    The intellectual legacy of Iacob Gogebashvili, the founder of Georgian scientific pedagogy, has always been the focus of study of the generations of Georgian scientists. Nowadays, the modern Georgian educational system is based on superficial and experimental pedagogical ideology. It results in creating a generation torn away from national beliefs and oriented only on biological interests.

    Iacob Gogebashvili’s views on the role and place of the church in education are particularly noteworthy. His position on inadmissibility of teaching two languages simultaneously during the first year of school is also tremendously significant. Iacob Gogebashvili’s pedagogical doctrine exposes the faults of the current education system.

     

    GVANTSA KOPLATADZE
    SOMETIMES IT IS BETTER NOT TO BEAT AROUND THE BUSH

    The article deals with the reforms carried out in the education system in Georgia a few years ago.

    In the author's opinion, the reform was adopted from western countries without any analysis, and without taking into account own tradition and experience.

    The result is based on the example of one particular textbook, and the following conclusion is drawn: Thorough knowledge available before the reform, has been replaced by seemingly in-depth knowledge; however, in reality,the reform has created a superficial, shallow knowledge.

     

    MAMUKA TSUKHISHVILI
    DAVIT GAREJI

    The article discusses the issue of rightful ownership of Davit Gareji. The monastery has been an integral part of the Georgian history. It has been the greatest spiritual and ecclesiastical, state and social monastery complex. Based on the research works related to this topic, the author draws a conclusion contradicting the opinions of some modern government representatives. From the day of its establishment in the 6th century, Davit Gareji monastery has always been a part of Georgia’s religion, history and territory.

     

    BONDO ARVELADZE
    "NORTHERN GATE OF ARMENIA - JAVAKH, LORI"

     The article talks about a collection of works published in 2010 in Yerevan - “Northern Gate of Armenia - Javakh, Lori". In it, according to "painful historicism" of unworthy Armenian scientists, ancient Georgian territories like Lore-Tashiri, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Gugarki/Gogarene(Kvemo Kartli) are declared as Armenia’s historical property. Historical issues based on biased or even falsified facts in this Armenian collection of works, do not hold water.

     

    TINA IVELASHVILI
    SILENCE IS NOT ALWAYS GOLDEN

     Today, in independent Georgia, an effective appropriation and seizure, modification and destruction of Georgian historical monuments is taking place by foreigners. This is happening with the conscious avoidance and support of certain Government bodies. Specifically, the article presents the history of three orthodox Akhaltsikhe cathedrals which are being appropriated by Armenian Gregorians and Catholics.

     

    TEIMURAZ GLONTI
    PHENOMENON OF GEORGIAN TABLE AND FEAST

    The Georgian table is a tradition stemming from the depth of the centuries. Unwritten rules of the Georgian table were verbally passed down from generation to generation as a live example, as a continuous cycle. Religious, as well as everyday life’s ritual culture of the traditional Georgian table takes its origin in Neolithic-Eneolithic era. The culture is diverse and manifold. It is linked to the everyday life, wedding and funeral ceremonies, calendar and religious name-days.

    The Christian world view has had an enormous influence on the formation and development of the Georgian table’s ritual culture. The rules for preparation and carrying out of the Georgian table, as well as the role and responsibilities of the Tamada (table-master) are discussed in the present work. The author also describes traditional toasts, which were, and still are pronounced at the Georgian table. Particular attention is paid to the closeness and similarity between the Divine Liturgy procedure and Georgian table’s ritual process, especially emphasizing the content, form and order of the proposed toasts.

    The importance of symbolic reflection of the role of vine and wine in the formation of Georgian table’s ritual culture is also demonstrated in this work. Finally, the author presents principal characteristics of the Georgian table as a diverse and versatile sublime ritual, which are closely interconnected with folk music, poetry, dance, eloquence and metaphoric-artistic thinking.

     

    ANZOR TOTADZE
    DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION AND NATION'S SPIRITUAL LIFE

     Nation’s greatness is not defined by its size but by the contribution it has made to the world’s culture and the enrichment of humanity. Throughout its existence, Georgia has maintained a unique, distinctive national culture thus making its noticeable contribution to the development of civilization of humanity. The article discusses the current demographic situation in Georgia and the nation's spiritual life. By the end of the 20th and 21st centuries, Georgian nation found itself on the brink of extinction. The birth rate significantly decreased and the death rate increased in the country. The number of single child families increased and the population aged demographically. The problem has been particularly pronounced in the recent years. Between 1980s and 1989s, 455,000 girls were born in Georgia, but during the last decade, in 2000-2009, only 236,000 girls were born. The country’s demographic situation is also burdened by the fact that Georgians’ way of life has been invaded by foreign violent tendencies. External and certain domestic forces, especially through television are deliberately promoting violence, murder, unbridled and unabashed sex. Consequently, they are laughing at traditions, the Georgian spiritual heritage, human feelings. The youth is led to believe that their main concern should be sex and food. The Old Greek philosopher Democritus referred to sex as temporary stun. Nowadays, they want everybody to be in constant stupor. The article talks about an unprecedented reduction in educational and cultural places, circulation of books, journals and newspapers. For example in 1989, there were 4300 public libraries, but in 2007, there were only 672. In 1888-2004, the circulation of books and brochures decreased from 23, 5 million to 0.3 million. The yearly circulation of journals and other periodicals decreased from 30, 5 million to 1, 1 million. The yearly circulation of newspapers has decreased from 790 million to 17, 9 million, etc.

     

    GULBAAT RTSKHILADZE
    THE INFLUENCE OF RELIGIOUS VIEWS ON U.S. FOREIGN POLICY

    This article is a revised excerpt from a collection of works by Gulbaat Rtskhiladze, published in 2008 in Tbilisi: "Principles of the United States Foreign Policy According to the American and European Authors and their Implications for Georgia.”

    Upon reviewing a vast array of literature, the author provides a detailed picture of the American society’s religious views and their influence on US foreign policy. He draws special attention to the so-called evangelicals who influenced President Reagan and the subsequent republican administrations. Unconditional support of Israel by America, as well as its aggressive attitude towards the Islamic Republic of Iran, can be attributed largely to these religious beliefs and the works of the Israeli lobby in the United States.

    Unfortunately, unlike the Israeli issue, the rather conservative and religious American public fails to influence United States foreign policy supporting homosexuality and other antireligious phenomena. (For example high-ranking US officials’ support of so-called gay-parades in Tbilisi and Riga, in May of this year.) Overall, the author concludes that the American policy of unconditional support of Israel is destabilizing the Middle East region. This is unsafe for Georgia, especially in conjunction with the Iranian problem. Furthermore, the support of the United Stated of the above-mentioned antireligious phenomena in Georgia carries out equal kind of threat.

     

    TEIMURAZ PANJIKIDZE
    DO YOU CONSIDER YOURSELVES GEORGIANS?

    The publication is a speech made in 2011 during the meeting with Jehova’s Witnesses. It refers to the interrelation of religious and national issues in Georgias religious sphere. It argues whether the religious denominations stemmed on foreign lands benefit or obstruct the national identity (in this case Jehova’s Witnesses).

     

    TEIMURAZ MIRIANASHVILI

    MORAL ASSESSMENT OF WESTERN AND EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS

     

    The article rejects the prevailing view that from ancient times the Western civilization (Catholic and Protestant) always stood out by immanent humanism in contrast to the Eastern (Orthodox) civilization. Based on historical sources, this viewpoint is totally unfounded. It is implemented through western propaganda and public relations. For example, the West claims fewer death penalty cases than those of the East. This does not correspond the truth at all.

    The author argues based on facts that the truth is reversed by 180 degrees. The death penalty abolition theories, moratorium and the law suppressing it appeared in the Orthodox world much earlier.The author discusses other inhumane crimes and argues that the Catholic-Protestant civilization shows evidence of morecruelty compared to others.

     

     

     

    GRANI KAVTARIA

    GNAEUS MARCIUS CORIOLANUS

     

    In the life and activities of Gnaeus Marcius Coriolanus one can clearly see the first steps of Roman conquest of Italy. The author pays considerable attention to episodes illustrating the Conflict of the Patrician and Plebeian Orders, which resulted in enhanced rights for the free citizens (Plebeians). The article also highlights Roman women’s patriotic spirit (specifically Coriolanus’s mother’s Volumnia). She sacrificed her son for Rome’s victory.

     

     

     

    GRIGOL RUKHADZE

    GEORGIAN EDITION OF ST. MAXIMUS THE CONFESSOR'S “LIFE”

     The article discusses St. Maximus the Confessor’s “Life”written by Tevdosi the Priest (TevdosiKhutsesi)in Greek, shortly after the 6th World Meeting held in 680 BC. It was translated to Georgian by St. EkvtimeMtatsmindeli (Atoneli) no later than 1005.

    In 1918 professor K. Kekelidze published the critically acclaimed text of the “Life” which still remains a bibliographical rarity.

    The article focuses on the following subchapters:kking Hercules and Maximus the Confessor, Faith and Confession, Church and State, Ppredestination and Judgment of God. Theological definitions are particularly abundant in this edition of St. Maximus the Confessor's “Life“.

     

    BORIS DARCHIA

    SOURCE OF ONE PAINTING BY IOVANESABANISDZE

     This work reviews an unusual painting by IovaneSabanisdze - "In Martyrdom of Abo". When Abo is led to the Emir for punishment, in front of him he sees a vision of his own deceased, dead body as if he is just an accompanying outsider. Researchers conclude that the painting, created with such an imagination, seems to be based on reality.

     

    SHOTA MATITASHVILI

    GEORGIAN MONASTICISM IN 6TH-8TH CENTURIES: SYRIAN FATHERS

     

    From the 6th century, a brand new era starts in the history of Georgian monasticism. This new era encompasses 6th-8th centuries and is characterized by a wide spread of monastic tradition and development. In the 40s of the 6th century, Syrian monks arrived in Georgia. They established strong monastic centers. These centers immediately became the most pivotal points of Georgian ascetic movement and Georgian culture. Georgian monastic life took a strictly organized form thanks to the achievements of Assyrian fathers and spread to almost all corners of the kingdom of Georgia of that time. The work of Assyrian fathers is another crucial page in the history of Georgian and Syrian Church history. The contribution of these famous monks is invaluable for Georgia and the Georgian Church.