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Scientific and social journal
“SAMI SAUNJE” (three treasures)  №2(8), 2013
(in georgian)

SUMMARY

  • Giorgi Gogolashvili, The university must be saved!
  • Zurab Tsutskiridze, Strategic tasks of educational reform in Georgia
  • Gulbad Amiranashvili, Historical treasure of the georgian people
  • Tina Ivelashvili, History of exiled muslims from Meskheti. Akhalkalaki province
  • Grani Kavtaria, Quailed, frightened and disgraced life
  • Nodar Lomouri, Let us not lose the national dignity and centuries-old traditions
  • Mamuka Tsukhishvili, Sachkhere cathedrals of Mother of God and the Savior
  • Treaty of Georgievsk
  • Shota Apkhaidze, Bombs with the inscription “happy Easter”
  • Grigol Rukhadze and Gvantsa Koplatadze, Javakheti - Akhalkalaki and Ninotsminda districts
  • Boris Darchia, “The knight in the panther's skin” and intertextual method
  •  

    GIORGI GOGOLASHVILI
    THE UNIVERSITY MUST BE SAVED!

    Over the 95 years of its existence, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University has endured many tribulations. However, the actions carried out by 2004-2012 government have surpassed all expectations. It was an example of unprecedented lawlessness and injustice. After October 2012 elections, hope for justice emerged, although the process has yet to be started at the university. The author expresses optimism that justice and law will finally prevail at the university.

     

    ZURAB TSUTSKIRIDZE
    STRATEGIC TASKS OF EDUCATIONAL
    REFORM IN GEORGIA

    The educational system is in poor state in Georgia. In the last twenty years, five various types of reforms has taken place, but there is no progress in sight. One thing is clear our education system is collapsing. The cause lies in the fact that each reform was an attempt to implement a false strategic direction. According to the author, the prime strategic objective is to establish the concepts of education. The objective of the reform should be based on the principles of common academic content. Concurrently, the content of education should have an ideological element. One of the fundamental objectives of the education reform should be developing behavioral strategies as a seamless part of the general system. Teacher training should also become part of our strategic vision, but unfortunately, this is not the case. The strategy for the future reform of school organization and management should be based on the scientific principles. Our Georgian culture, traditions and heritage should also be included in the educational development of future generations.

     

    GULBAD AMIRANASHVILI
    HISTORICAL TREASURE OF THE GEORGIAN PEOPLE

    In 1921, the Georgian Democratic government evacuated. Concurrently, the historical treasure of the Georgian people was relocated from Batumi to France by the initiative of Professor Ekvtime Takaishvili. The treasure was stored at the State Bank of Marseilles for preservation and only one-year storage fee was paid. In 1935, after 13 years of nonpayment of the fee, the French government declared the Georgian historical treasure abandoned and seized it in full accordance with the French law. Ekvtime Takaishvili sought the help of the Soviet government of Georgia; however, with the outbreak of the Second World War, the Georgian government was not up to saving the treasure.
    In October 1944, the Soviet press published an article announcing French President General Charles de Gaulle’s planned visit to the Supreme Commander of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin in early December. Concurrently, Shalva Amiranashviliwas attending a session of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow. He immediately decided to use the opportunity and wrote Stalin a letter. He asked Stalin to hold a negotiation with Charles de Gaulle on the return of the Georgian museum treasure exported from Georgia to France in 1921. On October 22nd, the letter was turned into the commandant’s office of the Kremlin.
    On November 23, 1944, in France, the patron of the Georgian treasure Ekvtime Takaishvili appealed to the President of the French government, General Charles de Gaulle, to return the confiscated Georgian treasure. The two independent attempts of the teacher Ekvtime Takaishvili and his student Shalva Amiranashvili had the desired, positive result.On December 10th, the Soviet Union and the French Republic signed a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance. The complete text of the treaty was published in the newspaper “Izvestia” #293 on December 19, 1944. Later, during the meeting of S. Amiranashvili and P. Sharia with V. Molotov, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR,it became known that Stalin had discussed the issue with Charles de Gaulle and received de Gaulle’s assurances on returning the Georgian treasure to Georgia. Charles de Gaulle, immediately upon his arrival in France issued a special order and returned the Georgian treasury to the Georgian People.

     

    TINA IVELASHVILI
    HISTORY OF EXILED MUSLIMS FROM MESKHETI
    AKHALKALAKI PROVINCE

    The problem of repatriation of the Muslim population of so-called “Meskhetian Turks” exiled in 1944 from Samtskhe-Javakheti and acceptation of their national identity has long worried the Georgian people. The opinions on this issue vary drastically. Comparison and analysis of currently available written sources, special and general literature, documents, recently studied ethnographic materials finally provide an opportunity to determine who the “Meskhetian Turks” are.  In addition, it reveals who is benefiting from using this artificially created term and for what purpose.
    Muslimized population (Tarakams, Kurds, Turks, and later Georgian Muslims) mostly lived in Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe provinces before the exile. Prior to 1940, religion and ethnic composition of the population of the Akhalkalaki province (today's Ninotsminda, Akhalkalaki and part of Aspindza districts), was rather diverse. This area was inhabited by indigenous Christians and partly Islamized Georgians. They were later joined by sheltered Kurds, Turks, Armenians and Karapapaks. From the written documents and ethnographic materials, it becomes evident that from the end of the 17th century and, especially the beginning of the 19th century, the area was dominated, not by muslimized Georgians but by the various Muslim tribes. By 1944, their number reached 3000 households. According toofficial sources, in November of 1944, 4220 families of the province were exiled. The majority of them (approximately 70% -75%) were non-Georgian Islam nationals resettled from Turkey in the first half of the 19th century. As for the Georgian population who changed their religion, faith, belief and became Turks, they willingly shared the fate of the exiles.

     

    GRANI KAVTARIA
    QUAILED, FRIGHTENED AND DISGRACED LIFE

    The article exposes the majority of selfish, quailed and frightened Ivane Javakhishvili University professors and teachers. Unfortunately, because of fear of losing their position and status at university, they showed slavish obedience to pseudo-reformers of higher education. By this, they assisted in the destruction of their native university. Today, as the political situation has changed, they have become the biggest critics of the same reform they were favoring before.

     

    NODAR LOMOURI
    LET US NOT LOSE THE NATIONAL DIGNITY
    AND CENTURIES-OLD TRADITIONS

    The author expresses his attitude towards certain events that have recently taken place in the public life of Georgia. One is the attempt by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community) representatives to hold a parade and the other is a presentation by Patriarchate TV dedicated to J. Dudayev. The author assesses both of these events from the viewpoint of moral and national principles.

     

    MAMUKA TSUKHISHVILI
    SACHKHERE CATHEDRALS OF MOTHER
    OF GOD AND THE SAVIOR

     The study of the historical monuments of the Sachkhere region began in the middle of the 19th century. Mother of God of Ekhvevi and “the upper Savior” (as referred by people) of Speti are masterpieces of the Georgian Christian architecture. They differ by antiquity inscriptions, exquisite style, original carvings and ornaments suggesting the cathedrals belong to the 9th - 11th centuries. Special interest is drawn by the iconostasis of the Cathedral of Speti, which is currently in the TbilisiState Museum of Art.

     

    Treaty of Georgievsk

    The Treaty of Georgievsk was the first international, bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti. The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti voluntarily accepted the patronage of Russia. With this act king Erekle II “in his name and the name of his heirs and successors of theirs” forever renounced recognition of any supreme power and patronage of Persia or any other country except Russia by the eastern Georgia. Russia pledged to protect eastern Georgia from foreign enemies, to assist in reclaiming lost lands, and the lands would continue to remain in the possession of the Georgian kings.
    The Treaty of Georgievsk was a drastic change, not only in the RussianGeorgian relationship but also GeorgianPersian and GeorgianTurkish relationships.
    The Treaty of Georgievsk marked a new beginning for the TurkishRussian and PersianRussian relationship related to Georgia as well as Transcaucasia as an international treaty. It would dramatically differ from the traditional relationships that took place for centuries. Furthermore, this act presented the issue of the Caucasus from an entirely different viewpoint.

     

    SHOTA APKHAIDZE
    BOMBS WITH THE INSCRIPTION “HAPPY EASTER”

    In the article, the author describes the principal policies of the Western powers whose purpose is to use NATO to carry out their strategic objectives. Specifically, the strategy is to further weaken the Russian positions and illegitimately extend Western influence globally. As part of this strategy, NATO has committed many war crimes, which have been downplayed or even overlooked altogether by Western propaganda. The author provides a detailed account of war crimes committed by NATO in the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and Libya. The author also reviews Western attempts to use NATO in Syrian conflict "resolution" knowing that it supports one of Syria’s warring parties, namely, Islamist terrorists.
    The author does not see any benefits for Georgia even it became a member of the Alliance. In the author’s opinion, the country's defensecapabilities will not increase, because NATO intervention will cause a sharp reaction fromRussia and Iran. This may result in Georgia becoming a large confrontation arena.Besides, the example of Kosovo, 1999 bombardment of Yugoslavia and the destruction of many orthodox temples in Kosovo and Metohija demonstrate an anti-orthodoxposition of the Northern Alliance Treaty Organization.

     

    GRIGOL RUKHADZE AND GVANTSA KOPLATADZE
    JAVAKHETI - AKHALKALAKI
    AND NINOTSMINDA DISTRICTS

    The article provides a report of the first ethnographic expedition performed under the auspices of the journal "Saunje" (Three Treasures). The name of the project is "My Homeland". The intent of the project is to study cultural and social conditions of individual Georgian regions and the opinionsof local residentsof the issues existing in these areas. At this time, the article presents the results of an ethnographic study in upper Kartli, in particular thetwo districts of Javakheti.

     

    BORIS DARCHIA
    “THE KNIGHT IN THE PANTHER'S SKIN”
    AND INTERTEXTUAL METHOD

    The author examines Mariam Karbelashvili’s recently published Rustavelogical (science that studies Shota Rustaveli’s work) articles about killing of men. He rejects the notions achieved by the intertextual method. According to them a 14th century chronicler and historian provides the first information about Shota Rustaveli and his poem by  allegedly  debating the issues of killing of men with Shota Rustaveli.