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Scientific and social journal

“SAMI SAUNJE” (three treasures)  №1(3), 2012

( in georgian)




  • Grigol Rukhadze, Will of the Great Georgians
  • Tina Ivelashvili, The Pillars of Georgian National Statehood
  • Giorgi Gogolashvili, Thoughts about Georgian Culture of Polemic
  • Emzar Kvitaishvili,Master of Literary Translation
  • Gvantsa Koplatadze, Intelligentsia and Religion
  • Nodar Lomouri, Repatriation of Meskhetian Turk Descendants Is an Anti-National Act
  • Gulbaat Rtskhiladze, 2012: Real Threats and Prospects of Georgia
  • Teimuraz Glonti, Leader of Feast
  • Mamuka Tsukhishvili, Jruchi Monastery
  • Anzor Totadze, Demographic Situation and Nation's Spiritual Life
  • Grani Kavtaria, Olympic Games
  • Zaza Vashakmadze, Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion
  • Victor Rtskhiladze, Mythos, Ideology and Christianity
  • Shota Matitashvili, At the Origins of Georgian Monasticism
  • Levan Beburishvili, How to Avoid the Dagger of Liberalism
  • Teimuraz Panjikidze, Meeting a Great Scientist and a Philosopher


    The article reviews the triad defined by St. Ilia Martali’s (Chavchavadze) idea of national and religious unity: Fatherland, Language, Faith. These three treasures are the essence of a Georgian man's life, the way of his existence, the meaning of his honorable citizenship. Even though the notion of the three treasures is connected to Ilia Martali, it essentially represents the will of every great Georgian for future generations. The author concludes that in today’s politics, despite having Ilia Chavchavadze’s picture displayed in almost every government office, the government is failing to preserve the treasures.



    "Fatherland, Language and Faith,” - These three sacred concepts together created the phenomenon of homeland. They always serve as the foundation of Georgian national state unity and strength. For centuries, Georgians have been able to preserve their independence, national identity and individuality with the help of this institution. Today, by alienating the land (it might be more appropriate if we said selling the land to strangers), by Anglifying and Americanizing the language, by weakening and degrading Georgian Orthodox Church, by ignoring the national identity and rejecting the past, Georgians face the problem of becoming an ethnic minority in their own homeland in a very short time. It can be said that we are presented with a classical form of White Genocide of the Georgian nation. If appropriate measures are not taken quickly, Georgian statehood will face catastrophic destruction.



    Polemic is a form of rhetoric. In fact, rhetoric has a long tradition in Georgian History. Even in the 12th century, it was taught among other subjects in the Gelati Academy. History has preserved numerous examples of polemic. The 19th century is particularly rich in his respect: Discussions, public debates were held among classics (Ilia Chavchavadze and Akaki Tsereteli, Akaki Tsereteli and Iakob Gogebashvili and others). Polemic had a classical form; strict rules of polemic were established. Unfortunately, currently we are losing this tradition. Today’s’ discussions and debates cannot be considered as a continuation of the honorable tradition. Polemic lost its value– search for the truth. The author believes the necessity of studying the Georgian culture of polemic and restoring the classical tradition.



    This letter is dedicated to the work of Tamaz Chkhenkeli, the famous translator of Eastern poetry. The letter examines the Georgian translation of Bai Juyi's Chinese poetry and a great Indian intellectual Rabindrat Tagore’s devotional songs (Gitanjali). By analyzing the presented samples, the author of the letter reveals the translator’s artistry. Two essential qualities make Tamaz Chkenkeli’s work stand out: thorough understanding of the mood and the content of the original text and the ability of preserving these features in the completed work.



    The Letter discusses the importance of the intelligentsia, the intellectual élite of society, for leading the nation’s future in the right direction. In the author's opinion, this can be carried out if one is successful in the scientific and cultural fields and also has a profound knowledge and understanding of religion. The author demonstrates his opinion by analyzing the events that took place during that last 3 decades of Georgian nation.



    In the 40s of the twentieth century, we were forced to endure numerous adversities brought by the Patriotic War. The success of Germans during the initial years of the war forced the Soviet Authorities to carry out rather drastic measures. First, the Germans living in various parts of the Soviet Union were exiled. They were followed by Cherkess- Adygs and Crimean Tatars as they were considered German supporters. On the night of November 15th 1944, Turks and their families who lived in Samtskhe Javakheti region of South Georgia (Adyghen, Aspindza, Akhaltshikhe-Akhalkalaki, and Bogdanovka regions) were also exiled to Central Asia. Their number reached almost 100,000. The deportation reason was. They were feared to be seeking closeness to Turkey, and Turkey was Germany’s ally. That is when the ethnic term “Turkish Meskhetians” or “Meskhetian Turks” was created. It was well known that, among the deported Turkish-Turkmen and Georgian ethnic groups, there were also Muslim Meskhetians.

    After the Patriotic war, most of he exiled were repatriated to their homeland; however, the issue of returning Muslims was rather stringent. The situation got highly escalated in the 70s. During this time, the number of deported Muslims from Meskheti reached 300 thousand. At the same time, a great number of Meskhetian descendants gradually lost their ethnicity. It is also noteworthy that the Georgian and Armenian population left on the territory of Meskheti still remembered the oppression experienced over the years from the Muslims. Therefore, they drastically opposed their return. A great role was played by a famous Orientalist and public figure, Professor Otar Gigineishvili in making the fair decision solve the problem.

    At the end of 70s, by the initiative of O. Gigineishvili, with a wide support of the community and assistance of The First Secretary of the Communist Party of Georgia E. Shevardnadze, certain number of emigrants was repatriated to Georgia. These were the people who had retained the Georgian ethnicity. They were resettled in various regions of Georgia (Ozurgeti, Martvili, and Kaspi) where they soon merged with the local Georgian population.

    Regardless of this, the dilemma was far from being solved. I. Sarvarov and his followers had not given up the offensive. They demanded not only the repatriation to Meskheti but also autonomy, which of course has not been granted.

    The descendants of Meskhetian Turks do not show any trace of Georgian origin. Nowadays, they are regular Turks and their repatriation to Georgia would be just as wrong and anti-national as settling Turks in Adjara.



    The paper examines the perception of one political entity (Russian) by another (Georgia) based on the Constructivist Theory. Further, the author argues the detriment of perceiving Russia as an enemy. In fact, in order to maintain the vital interests, preserve its religious (Orthodox) identity and allow the economy to grow Georgia must maintain good neighborly relations with Russia. Threats to Georgia arise at first glance, rather unexpectedly, from West. The West totally interferes in the internal affairs of the country, veiling this interference with concepts of “assistance,” “support,” “partnership,” etc. The paper also assesses Turkish-Georgian relations, which at first glance, are exemplary, but in actuality are rather tense.



    The Biblical book “Wisdom of Sirach" discusses a moral code of the one who leads a feast, a toastmaster. The book outlines all the requirements the toastmaster should follow: to be humble, but at the same time be the first among the equals; discreet in words but eloquent and wise; be attentive to the participants of the feast, defend the etiquette of seniority; be the initiator of fun and songs. At the same time, the leader should be able to handle the feast in a timely manner. He should arrive on time and leave on time. He should be controlled in wine drinking and behavior. One should note that such functionality and meaningful form characterizes a Georgian Tamada. None of the people in the world engaged in viticulture and winemaking have demonstrated the principles of Sirach’s concepts of feasting as much as Georgians. Georgia is the cradle of the vines. The Georgian culture of wine consumption has always involved rules and traditions rom the start. Therefore, it is possible that the material foundation of “Wisdom of Sirach” stemmed from the Georgian reality.



    Jruchi Monastery, built at the end of 10th-11th centuries, represents a highly valuable ensemble of Georgian Architecture. Here, many ecclesiastic and secular individuals tirelessly carried out activities to grow and strengthen the nation’s faith and national consciousness. The monastery became one of the vital Georgian cultural hearths as a direct result of these individuals’ efforts. From the twenties of the 20th century, with the commencement of atheist ideology the monastery became desolate and ravaged. Unfortunately, a strong earthquake in 1991 was one more problem that turned the monastery complex into ruins. Today, Jruchi monastery is in dire need of restoration and care.



     Nation’s greatness is not defined by its size but by the contribution it has made to the world’s culture and the enrichment of humanity. Throughout its existence, Georgia has maintained a unique, distinctive national culture thus making its noticeable contribution to the development of civilization of humanity. The article discusses the current demographic situation in Georgia and the nation's spiritual life. By the end of the 20th and 21st centuries, Georgian nation found itself on the brink of extinction. The birth rate significantly decreased and the death rate increased in the country. The number of single child families increased and the population aged demographically. The problem has been particularly pronounced in the recent years. Between 1980s and 1989s, 455,000 girls were born in Georgia, but during the last decade, in 2000-2009, only 236,000 girls were born. The country’s demographic situation is also burdened by the fact that Georgians’ way of life has been invaded by foreign violent tendencies. External and certain domestic forces, especially through television are deliberately promoting violence, murder, unbridled and unabashed sex. Consequently, they are laughing at traditions, the Georgian spiritual heritage, human feelings. The youth is led to believe that their main concern should be sex and food. The Old Greek philosopher Democritus referred to sex as temporary stun. Nowadays, they want everybody to be in constant stupor. The article talks about an unprecedented reduction in educational and cultural places, circulation of books, journals and newspapers. For example in 1989, there were 4300 public libraries, but in 2007, there were only 672. In 1888-2004, the circulation of books and brochures decreased from 23, 5 million to 0.3 million. The yearly circulation of journals and other periodicals decreased from 30, 5 million to 1, 1 million. The yearly circulation of newspapers has decreased from 790 million to 17, 9 million, etc.



    The Olympic Games served for the perfection of physical and spiritual strength of Greeks. Taking part in public Greek celebrations was the privilege of full citizens. Besides sports and various physical activities, general Greek festive spirit would pave a way to the improvement and development of poetry, music and theatrical shows. The letter presents the Olympic Games as the true representation of Greek equality.


    (European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights, Article 9)

    The Article represents the first attempt to analyze article 9-"Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion" of the European Convention, with both ideological and legal viewpoints. This question is relevant today not only in Georgia but throughout the civilized world, despite the religious belief or its manifestation. For more than half a century, the nature and content of this article, has been a subject of heated debates in the legal community. This issue covers not only the scope of national but also the discussion and interpretation of international law and regulation. In Georgia, this issue has become heightened in the last twenty years, due to the intensification of the "Jehovah's Witnesses" and then by the visit the Patriarch of Armenia to Georgia in 2011. The concepts of Article 9 "Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion" encompass broad-spectrum of areas. The thought and conscience are entirely different from religion, belief and faith. In the legal community, there is no precise definition of religion, belief and faith. These terms encompass more than a "thought" or "conscience." The theological interpretation of terms: "religion, faith and belief" is deeper than their philosophical (sociological) understanding since they can at any time become "a subject of debate." The practical application of the terms both in national and the international court of justice without establishing specific values could be considered a legal disadvantage. A believer differently perceives religion, faith and belief. For an atheist, it is a normal topic for discussion. It should be noted that the majority of national and the international court judges who adjudicate on religious matters, are non-religious people. They do not have the appropriate education, and that is clearly reflected in their decisions. A similar trend is apparent in the law itself. Modern national (State) and international law clearly distance itself from religion. All of this causes the application of law and the removal of spirituality. The law exists for an individual (society), and it should contribute to one's spiritual health.



    Just as the title suggests, Victor Rtskhiladze’s article offers the definition of Mythos, Ideology and Christianity concepts in relation to each other. The article consists of four parts. Each part has its title. The first part examines the viewpoints of a wide range of authors - Mircea Eliade, Ernst Cassirer, Carl Keren and others about the concept of mythos. The second part is titled”Dangerous Mythos as an Instrument of Political Movement.” Here, attention is drawn to the political movements of the 20th century, which were based on a variety of mythoi. The author presents the relationship between the mythos factor and totalitarian orientation of these political movements that were carried out by the enslavement of the same community that supported these movements. The third part speaks for itself: “A Dangerous Mythos Associated with an Individual.” This issue stems from the foregoing, political movement being based on the fallacious myth and idolizing its leaders. This, once more, leads to the enslavement of society. Finally, the fourth part discusses the question of how much of Christianity is ideology. For this purpose, Mr. Rtskhiladze reviews in detail the 20th century philosopher and theologian Karl Rahner’s article with the analogical title. The article clearly states that ideology is limited to the mundane tasks, while Christianity overcomes them. Christian faith is an initiative emanating from God, Gods grace.



     Georgian monasticism is the most critical part of the Eastern Christian world. This article discusses the emergence of monasticism in Georgia. Studying the sources and considering the religious situation on the international scenes of those times, one can conclude that the ascetic movement in Georgia began long before the arrival of Syrian fathers. Originally, it would have had an anachoretic form. It is believed that anachoresis in Georgia emerged locally, partly by foreign influence. Organized monastic life must have begun under the influence of the Ponto-Cappadocia (partly by Syria). For centuries, the Georgian monasticism played a vital role in the life of Georgia, Caucasus and Byzantium. It was the standard-bearer and the pier of the Georgian cultural identity, not to mention its purely religious exercise. Therefore, one must examine the Georgian monasticism not as a phenomenon of only Georgian history but in the context of all Christian world history.



    The article reviews and critically assesses some aspects of theologian Zelimkhan Udzilauri’s work: “How to Avoid Sword of Fundamentalism.” One should note that the researcher’s statements in a number of cases are false. When speaking about the Orthodox Church, Zelimkhan Udzilauri expresses his extremely biased nature and intentionally cites those scientists who aggressively oppose the faith. The “Theologian” often distorts the facts and misrepresents them.



    In the letter, the author recollects a interview with a distinguished scientist and philosopher, academician Shalva Nutsubidze, who left an tremendous footprint in Georgian science and systematization of Georgian philosophy. He rendered a remarkable translation of Shota Rustaveli’s poem Knight in the Panther’s Skin (“Vepkhistkaosani”) in Russian.