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Scientific and social journal
“SAMI SAUNJE” (three treasures)  №4(10), 2013
(in georgian)


  • Zurab tsutskiridze, Fateful orientations of education reform in georgia
  • Tina ivelashvili, The political meaning of erecting minaret in chela
  • Mamuka tsukhishvili, Abastumani – healing oasis
  • Rusudan lokhishvili, The role of theatre in society and Its evaluation from the perspective of the church
  • Grani  kavtaria, Strabo and fragments of history of colchis (moafern  - ruler of colchis)
  • Zurab tsutskiridze, The great experimenter of mankind
  • Gvantsa koplatadze, Shalva nutsubidze about The author of areopagitica
  • Grigol rukhadze, Definition of philosophy according to saint john of damascus


    During the last twenty years, education reforms took place in school system with a great pompseven times.  Six of them rendered no results.  The only  exceptionwas the last reform, which resulted in dire consequences of thoroughly destroying the secondary and higher education systems.
    This was caused by the Ministry of Educationblindly following the wrong orientation; In particular, adopting international guidelines and recommendations without any research. Instead of basing the reformist decisions on science, it simply copied the experience of others, neglected Georgian pedagogical science and a betrayedGeorgia’s national interests.



    During the recent years, particularly after the October 2012 parliamentary elections, there has been an intensified commotion about limiting or violating the rights of so-called "religious minorities" in Georgia. The country’s numerous non-governmental organization representatives and foreign “advisors” have taken this topic almost to the level of political issues. Without mentioning any examples from different parts of Georgia, actions carried out in the village of Chela (Adigeni district) are enough to illustrate the above mentioned.  
    In order to undermine the national consciousness, in the past as well as today, foreign forces have attempted to counter the Georgian Orthodox Church by not only financially propagating religious sects, but also by a fundamental religion like Islam. However, they are forgetting one thing. Today, Muslim countries no longer live by the acumen of the 60s of the last century. Today they are fighting by every means possible (including the exploitation of religion) not for globalization but for independence and expansion and strengthening of their national statehood. Hence, the minaret erected overnight by the secret assistance of the Turkish Government and tacit “blessing” of the “world-class” Georgian globalists is not only an attempt to spread the Turkish Islamization in Georgia, but also the disintegration of our country.



    The article presents the current deplorable state of one of the most unique resorts of Georgia, historical Odzkhe– Abastumani. Today, only one of the numerous medical clinicsof Abastumani is functioning. The future of this unique resort  isquestionable as the Government fails to take any notice of it. The same issue is occurring with the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. During the Soviet era,the Observatorywas considered a world-class institution in the field of planetary exploration. We should take urgent measures to save Abastumani.



    The essay reveals a diverse relationship of theater and the church that existed during different periods of history. Theatre originated in the ancient era. Great thinkers have always given a considerable importance to the theater as a tool of moral evolution of a person. After the widespread dissemination of Christianity, only theater remained a supporter of paganism and only there, demonic rituals and orgies took place. This explains the negative attitude of the church towards the theater. The relationship between the church and theater became particularly acute during the intensification of heretical movements. In the 4th century, the aspiration towards theatrical shows was so extreme that people lived not actual, but artificial, imagined, behind the scenes theatrical lives. In the squares of the cities announcements like “Bread and Spectacle” could be heard. It is not surprising that the clergy took all measures against the separation of man from God. Therefore, Holly Fathers of the church welcomed the toughest laws against theatrical performances in order to prevent the moral corruption of mankind. But times have changed. Generations have grown in the bosom of Christianity, with Christian lifestyles. The nature of the theatrical performances has changed as well. For example, in the middle ages, theatre in Russia was so popular that auditoriums overflowed. Especially popular were the performances with religious themes. As for Georgia, theater originated in the 19th century by the patronage and promotion of Ilia Chavchavadze (Ilia Martali). Ilia made the following statement about the role of theater: “Stage speaks to the hearts and minds of men with live pictures; the influence that it holds over the human mind is more powerful than anything else. This power of theater is desirable and inspiring for the human senses and intellect.” Theater and cinema figures unanimously recognize that the true art should serve as the spiritual cleansing and ethical education of society.


    (Moafern  - Ruler of Colchis)

    The article discusses a historical reference in Strabo’s 17-volume work Geographica that contains data about the status of Colchis in the Empire of Mithridates Eupator. The famous geographer’s interest to this issue was drawn by the fact that during a certain period his relative, in particular,  his mother’s uncle Moafern was a ruler of Colchis. The article indicates that in the distant past Colchis (and the rest of Georgia) was subjected to aggression of powerful states. This fact remains true nowadays too.



    Mankind has always been attracted to the idea of ​​equality. The Appeal of any religious doctrine consists in the idea of equality of any person before God. That's why the communists had “brotherhood, unity, equality”  inscribed on the flag. The creators of the slogan might have had demagoguery in mind, but Stalin wanted to implement it in a practical, earthly life.This experiment was carried out under his direction on one sixth of the earth and it was rather successful. He was actually able to fraternizeseveral hundred nations. In the Stalin era, no one would have thought of religious or national hatred,  no one would have displayed  pride such as the pride of owning property.Free universal education and health care, unconditional social protection of every citizen… but still, mankindwas not ready to a full embodiment of this idea.



    The five theological and philosophical works - Areopagitica bythefigure of the first century, a disciple of the Apostle Paul, St. Dionysius the Areopagite, has raised the questions of authenticity in the church from the beginning. Particularly in the year 532, at the local Council of Constantinople, Hypatia of Ephesus  questioned the authorship of Dionysius the Areopagite. The disputeswere resumed in the era of Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus. In the late 19thand early 20thcenturies, science affirmed the anonymity of the Areopagitic booksbased on the fact that the books were created between 451 and 532 years, after the Council of Chalcedon.
    The second phase of the Areopagitica research in science was carried out in order to determine the identity of the author. During the Council of Constantinople, local bishops brought Christian books of every famous author of Syria and Palestine of the second half of 5th, and the beginning of the 6th centuries.Every name was reviewed as the possible authorof Areopagitica however, none withstood the criticism.
    In 1942, a Georgian philosopher and scholar Shalva Nutsubidze published a study"The Mystery of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite”. In the study,Nutsubidze argued that the author of the book Areopagitica was a well-known figure of the 5th century, Bishop of Majuma, Georgian Prince Peter the Iberian.
    S.Nutsubidze conducted a study using three criteria to support his claim:The first criteria:Was Peter the Iberian a suitable person, capable ofauthoring the Areopagitic booksbased on his character and his activities?;The second criteria and also the main one:WerePeter the Iberian’s views and beliefs in agreement with those of the Areopagitic books?;The third criteria: Werethere any documentations indicating Peter the Iberian as the author of Areopagitica?
    S.Nutsubidze achieved successful results in all three aspects: Contemporaries of Peter the Iberian mentioned Peter the Iberian as the second Paul and the second Moses. They emphasized his amazing, scholarly talents that manifested in many areas including learning Greek and Syriac.They pointed out that a lot of “treatisesand stories " were created to depict his talent.
    S.Nutsubidze reached even more interesting results regarding Peter the Iberian’s views. Peter the Iberian’s viewpoints documented  by his biographers coincided with such main issues of the doctrine of Areopagitic books as the teachings of evil negating good and it being a step to affirm good (the basic principle of  negative theology in Areopagitic doctrine).
    Peter the Iberian andDionysius the Areopagite  share deep similarities in describing  The Celestial Hierarchies  where through the ministry of the Angelic Hosts, triads of angels, the Divine Providential Life is transmitted from Its ultimate Source to all things, even to the remotest bounds of transiency, in accordance with the divine plan which is a perfect and harmonious unity whereby all beings and things, from the innermost to the outermost, participate in the Providential Stream in the measure of their capacity.
    To research  the above mentioned thirdcriterion the exceptional importance was played by Zacharias Rhetor mentioning that Peter the Iberian, not just wrote books, but also, was rather famous. He brings an example of a John of Alexandria who attributed his own work to that of Peter the Iberian in order to better distribute them.
    Belgian Professor Ernest Honigmann (1892-1954), independently from S.Nutsubidze,  also concluded that Peter the Iberian authored the Areopagiticbooks. The results of Nutsubidze’s and Honigmann’s research are known in science as the Theory of Nutsubidze‑Honigmann.
    Initially, Western scientists, especially after the publication of the study by E. Honigmann, enthusiastically accepted this finding. However, the circumstances changed after the publication of the work by E. Engberding. Engberding denied the authorship of Peter the Iberian, irrefutably arguing his monophysitism.Engberding also had a zealous followerin R.Rock.
    In contrast to the arguments made against the authorship of Peter the Iberian by Engberding, it should be noted that the information on Peter the Iberian’s monophysitism is provided solely by Monophysite sources. The Orthodox world recognizedPeter the Iberian as a saint. There were hymnographic works dedicated to him. There is a fresco of him preserved in the Jerusalem Holy Cross Monastery; There are other evidences such as St. Catherine monastery triptych on Mount Sinai where Peter the Iberian is depicted along with  Hilarion Georgian and Shio Mgvimeli in the third row of the central partwith the inscriptions “Lights of Georgia,” ;  the manuscript of Mount Athos of 14th-15th centuries, decorated with Georgian-Greek liturgical character miniatures, in which Peter the Iberian is depicted next to St. Ekvtime Atoneli and Hilarion Georgian.
    In addition, we have carefully studied the information by  the Monophysite authors about Peter the Iberian.As a result of a rigorous analysis of the texts, it became clear that they took an advantage of his ascetic way of life as Peterthe Iberian did not take active part in the theological controversy between the dyophysite and the monophysite. They falsified many of the facts with an intentionof presenting him as a monophysit and using his great authority for their own benefit.
    Neither S.Nutsubidze nor E.Honigman considered Peter the Iberian as an orthodox Monophysite. In recent years, M. Van. Esbrok started considering Peter the Iberian a  dyophysite. So, if science cannot find any other justification other than just his Monophysitism against the authorship of Peter the Iberian, then, as the M. Van. Esbrok suggests, the  theory Nucubidze-Honigmann should be revisited. Even more so because to date,science has been unable to establish the actual historical author of Areopagitica.



    “Source of Knowledge” is the most significant work of the famous theologian Saint John of Damascus. The first part of the work focuses on the definition of theological and philosophical concepts. The introductory part is commonly called Philosophical Chapters (Kephálaia Philosophiká) or “Dialectic”. It was translated into Georgian by The Reverend Efrem Mtsire (11th c.) and The Reverend Arsen Ikaltoeli (11th -12th cc). Saint John of Damascus combined all of the Christian and antique wisdom into six segments and created a classical example characteristic to medieval Byzantine thinking.From today’s philosophical viewpoint, the theological and philosophical synthesis of these definitions is not acceptable; however, the Orthodox religion has not abandoned them. Despite the fact that some authors (for example, Tatian the Assyrian, Theophilus of Mesopotamia, Tertullian) of the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC. did not recognize philosophy, the Church chose the path of coexistence between theology and philosophy.
    Historians of theology agree that unlike Latin scholasticism, Byzantine thinking has never clearly defined theology and philosophy. From a historical point of view, it is obvious that the Western way of separation of theology and philosophy, established by the Dominican theologian Thomas Aquinas (13th c.), caused severe harm to both areas. The European notion of "pure philosophy", i.e. its autonomy, has proved to be fiction. Secularized and devoid of sacred regulations, modern Western philosophy is constantly looking for justifying its existence. Even more, it is no longer able to invent new acts of salvation of mankind mired in a whirlpool of sin. 
    According to the current requirements, no philosopher has a right to mention his agreement to supernatural abilities in his work, whether he believes in them or not.
    The lack of “merciful thinking” is the cause of the weakness of intellectual workers that results in ignorance of the true philosophy and inaction. They lose the skill that would give them the strength to resist the unbridled debauchery, social injustice and help them engender hope in society. In the author’s opinion, the Georgian nation does not benefit from conversation of the abstract. Instead,one should discuss the subjects related to vital laws Therefore, when the author expresses the desire of animation of philosophy; he refers to the colleagues and the part of the society who feel responsible in front of God for the destiny of the country.